You will need build-essential, dpkg-dev, gcc, glib-dev, flex and bison, libnet, libffi packages.
You can install them with apt-get install command or with synaptic.
Hint: You should increase the terminal buffer up to 1000 lines.
Then download the latest version of syslog-ng (if you want to download from github through terminal, git must be installed on your system; you can install it with: )
sudo apt-get install gitthen
git clone https://github.com/balabit/syslog-ng-3.4.git
However, in some descriptions you can read: "Download and install the latest version of eventlog", it's enough to install libevtlog-dev and libevtlog0.
Then cd to your syslog-ng-3.4 directory and run
dpkg-checkbuilddepsto check build dependencies and conflicts.
I needed to install the following packages on ubuntu 13.04:
libtool, debhelper, libevtlog-dev, libevtlog0, libevtlog0-dbg, libnet1-dev, libglib2.0-dev, libdbi0-dev, libssl-dev.
I got an error message during compiling, so you should install xsltproc before next step.
Type to compile syslog-ng with debug option (you can find more options in syslog-ng ose 3.4 admin guide):
./autogen.sh && ./configure --prefix <install dir> --enable-debug && make && make installwhere <install dir> is the destination folder.
Note: If you get permission denied messages, you need to change the user ownership.
chown -R <user> syslog-ng-3.4
Syslog-ng OSE 3.4 admin guide